Zinc chloride Chemical Properties,Uses,Production
White granular crystal or powder of hexagonal system, highly soluble in water, soluble in methanol, ethanol, glycerine, acetone, diethyl ether but Insoluble in liquid ammonia.
Water solubility (g/100ml)
Water solubility Solubility in 100 ml of water at different temperatures 342g/0℃;353g/10℃;395g/20℃;437g/30℃;452g/40℃;488g/60℃;541g/80℃;614g/100℃
Used as dehydrating and condensing agent in organic synthesis industry and catalyst for production of vanillin, Cyclamen aldehyde, anti-inflammatory painkillers and cation exchange resin; Used as solvent of polyacrylonitrile; Used as mordant, Mercerizing agent and sizing agent in Dyeing industry; used as the raw material for the production of fiber can and shuttle(cosolvent for cotton fibre) to improve the fiber adhesion force; used as stabilizers for ice dye chromogenic salt in Dye industry in the production of reactive dye and cationic dye; Used as oil purifying agent and activating agent for Activated carbon; Used for impregnating wood to provide corrosion resistance and flame retardancy; Used as flame retardant for cardboard and cloth products; Used for electroplating; Used as welding flux for welding electrode; Used for the production of aluminum alloy, light metal deacidification and the processing of metal surface oxide layer in Metallurgical industry; Used in the production of blueprint paper; Used as battery electrolyte; Used as the raw material for the production of Alcohol resistant foam extinguishing agent and zinc cyanide. Also used in medicine and medicine production.
Zinc chloride is a white deliquescent salt. It forms acidic solutions in water and in polar
organic solvents such as ethanol, acetone, and ether. Anhydrous zinc chloride hydrolyzes
with moisture to form hydrochloric acid. It also forms complex ions with water, ammonia,
and some organic solvents. Zinc chloride reacts with sulphide to minimise release of H2S
gas in waste treatment facilities. Zinc chloride 50% solution also serves as a high-quality
mercerising agent for cotton. Zinc chloride is incompatible with strong oxidising agents,
moisture, cyanides, sulphides, and potassium.
White, granular, deliquescent crystals or
crystalline powder. A
10% solution is acid to litmus. Soluble in water,
alcohol, glycerol, and ether.
Zinc chloride is white/colorless crystalline granules.
Zinc chloride is a white hexagonal, deliquescent
crystals or colorless solution. The fume is a white particulate
dispersed in air.
Used as a dehydrating agent, as a catalyst and in electroplating, wood preservation, textile processing,petroleum refining,medicine and feed additives.
Zinc chloride is used as a wood preservative and in fireproofing timber. Other uses are as a deodorant in disinfecting fluids; in dental cements; in electroplating; in etching metals and glass; as flux for soldering; as a mordant in printing and dyeing textiles; in making dry batteries; in denaturing alcohols; in vulcanizing rubber; in manufacturing parchment; in making artificial silk; in making activated carbon and cold-water glues; and in refining petroleum. Also, zinc chloride is used as a dehydrating and condensing agent in organic syntheses. In medicine it is used as an astringent and antiseptic.
Deodorant, disinfecting and embalming material; alone or with phenol and other antiseptics for preserving railway ties; fireproofing lumber; with ammonium chloride as flux for soldering; etching metals; manufacture of parchment paper, artificial silk, dyes, activated carbon, cold-water glues, vulcanized fiber; browning steel, galvanizing iron, copper-plating iron; in magnesia cements; petroleum oil refining; cement for metals and for facing stone; mordant in printing and dyeing textiles; carbonizing woolen goods; producing crepe and crimping fabrics; mercerizing cotton; sizing and weighting fabrics; vulcanizing rubber; solvent for cellulose; preserving anatomical specimens; in microscopy for separating silk, wool, and plant fibers; as dehydrating agent in chemical syntheses. Dentin desensitizer.
ChEBI: A compound of zinc and chloride ions in the ratio 1:2. It exists in four crystalline forms, in each of which the Zn2+ ions are trigonal planar coordinated to four chloride ions.
Zinc chloride is prepared by the reaction of zinc oxide or zinc metal with dilute hydrochloric acid, followed by crystallization:
ZnO + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2O
Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2
zinc chloride: A white crystalline compound, ZnCl2
. The anhydrous salt, which is deliquescent, can be made by the action of hydrogen chloride gas on hot zinc; r.d. 2.9; m.p. 283°C; b.p. 732°C. It has a relatively low melting point and sublimes easily, indicating that it is a molecular compound rather than ionic. Various hydrates also exist. Zinc chloride is used as a catalyst, dehydrating agent, and Ûux for hard solder. It was once known as butter of zinc.
Zinc chloride is a colorless liquid. Zinc chloride is mildly corrosive to metals. Zinc chloride causes burns to eyes, skin and mucous membranes.
Air & Water Reactions
When dissolved in water, Zinc chloride is a strong acid. [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p. 964]
Acidic salts, such as ZINC CHLORIDE, are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydrogen ions and have pH's of less than 7.0. They react as acids to neutralize bases. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of inorganic acids, inorganic oxoacids, and carboxylic acid. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible. Many of these compounds catalyze organic reactions.
Solid or water solution is astringent and can irritate the eyes. When ingested, can cause intoxication, severe irritation of stomach, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Exposures to zinc chloride cause adverse health effects and poisoning. On contact with the skin, zinc chloride causes skin burns and ulcerations, redness, eyes develop pain and blurred vision, and any splashes from solutions may cause eye damage. It is extremely
destructive to the tissues of the mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. The
symptoms of toxicity include, but are not limited to, burning sensation, coughing, wheezing, laryngitis, shortness of breath, headache, nausea and vomiting, and irritation or corrosion to the gastrointestinal tract with abdominal pain. After repeated exposures of zinc
chloride through skin contact, occupational workers develop varying degrees of skin
problems, such as dermatitis and skin ulcerations. Repeated inhalation of zinc chloride
causes occupational asthma among workers
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
Poison by ingestion,
intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes.
Human systemic effects by inhalation: pulm-
onary changes. An experimental teratogen.
Experimental reproductive effects.
Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Human mutation data
reported. A corrosive irritant to skin, eyes,
and mucous membranes, Exposure to ZnCl2
fumes or dusts can cause dermatitis, boils,
conjunctivitis, gastrointestinal tract upsets.
The fumes are highly toxic. Incompatible
with potassium. Mixtures of the powdered
chloride and powdered zinc are flammable.
When heated to decomposition it emits
toxic fumes of Cland ZnO. See also ZINC
COMPOUNDS and CHLORIDES.
Zinc chloride is used in iron galvanizing;
as a wood preservative; for dry battery cells; as a soldering
flux; in textile finishing; in vulcanized fiber;
reclaiming rubber; in oil and gas well operations; oil refining;
manufacturing of parchment paper; in dyes; activated
carbon; in chemical synthesis; in adhesives; dentists’
cement; deodorants, disinfecting and embalming solutions;
and taxidermy. It is also produced by military screeningsmoke.
UN2331 Zinc chloride, anhydrous, Hazard class: 8;
Labels: 8-Corrosive material. UN1840 Zinc chloride, solution,
Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.
The anhydrous material can be sublimed under a stream of dry HCl, followed by heating to 400o in a stream of dry N2. It sublimes at high vacuum. Also purify it by refluxing (50g) in dioxane (400mL) with 5g zinc dust, filtering hot and cooling to precipitate ZnCl2. Crystallise it from dioxane and store it in a desiccator over P2O5. It has also been dried by refluxing in thionyl chloride. [Weberg et al. J Am Chem Soc 108 6242 1986.] Hygroscopic: minimal exposure to the atmosphere is necessary. [Wagenknecht & Juza Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol II p 1070 1965.]
Aqueous solutions are strongly acidic.
Incompatible with bases and potassium. Incompatible with
strong oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates,
perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact
may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from
alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids,
epoxides. Corrosive to metals.
Dump in water; add soda ash
and stir, then neutralize and flush to sewer with water.
Alternatively, zinc chloride may be recovered from spent
catalysts and used in acrylic fiber spinning solutions.
Exposures to zinc chloride are dangerous, corrosive, and cause burns to any area of contact. Harmful if swallowed or inhaled. Affects the cardiovascular system.
Zinc chloride Preparation Products And Raw materials