Triclosan Chemical Properties,Uses,Production
Triclosan is an efficient broad-spectrum topical antimicrobial disinfectant which is normally white or off-white crystalline powder. It has a slightly phenolic odor. It is insoluble in water but easily soluble in organic solvents and alkali. It has a relative stable chemical property and is heating-resistant and also resistant to acid and alkali hydrolysis without generating any symptoms of the toxicity and environmental pollution. It is internationally recognized as a fungicide variety with specific efficacy. It can kill bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and fungi such as Candida albicans. It also has an inhibitory effect on the virus (e.g., hepatitis B virus, etc.) while being able to protect the beneficial bacteria. The mechanism of action of triclosan is as below: it is first adsorbed on the bacterial cell wall and then further penetrates through the cell wall and has reaction with the lipid and protein in the cytoplasm, and thus resulting in protein denaturation which further kill the bacteria. Currently it has been widely applied to highly-efficient medicated soap (health soap, health lotion), removing underarm odor (foot aerosol), hand sanitizer, wound disinfectant sprays, medical equipment disinfectants, hygiene cleanser (cream), and air fresheners and refrigerator deodorants and some other daily chemicals. It is also used for the cleaning of the health fabric and the anti-corrosion treatment of plastics. Its high purity version can be added to the toothpaste and mouthwash for treatment of gingivitis, periodontitis and oral ulcers. The State content must not exceed 0.3%.
In 2004, a teacher (Dr. Peter Vikesland) from the Virginia Tech University (US) had found from the experiments that the reaction between the triclosan-containing product and the chlorine-containing tap water containing can generate a substance known as "chloroform aryl", that is, chloroform (chemical name: trichloromethane) which is a colorless, volatile liquid with a special sweetness. Upon exposure to light, it will be oxidized to generate hydrogen chloride and phosgene. It had been once used as an anesthetic. Animal experiments have found that this substance will do harm to the heart and liver with mild teratogenicity and can induce the liver cancer of mice. However, so far no studies on the human carcinogenicity have been reported. For insurance purposes, both the International Cancer Research Centre and the United States have already has the chloroform be listed as suspected carcinogens to the human body.
The national standard of the toothpaste used in China is the new national standard of toothpaste (GB8372-2008) implemented on February 1, 2009. Compared with the 2001 version of toothpaste standard, the new national standard has been supplemented and adjusted in various aspects. In the new national standard of toothpaste, the prohibited or restricted ingredients include nearly 1,500 kinds, including diethylene glycol and triclosan. The provision of diethylene glycol is that it is not allowed to artificially add it to the raw materials, such as being introduced as impurities. Its content in the toothpaste should not exceed 0.1%. Triclosan were listed as being allowable preservatives but with the usage amount not exceeding 0.3%. The new national standard has ruled that the fluorine content of the fluoride-containing toothpaste should be within the range of 0.04%-0.15%, and the fluoride content should be within the range of 0.05% to 011% for children fluoride-containing toothpaste.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
It is colorless and long needle-like crystals with a melting point being around 54-57.3 ℃ (60-61 ℃). It is slightly soluble in water and soluble in ethanol, acetone, ethyl ether and alkali solution. It has a chloro-phenol odor.
1. It can be used as antiseptic and fungicide and applied to cosmetics, emulsions and resins; also can be used for the manufacture of disinfection medicated soap. The LD50 of mice subject to oral administration of this product is 4g/kg.
2. It can be used for the production of top-grade daily chemical product, the disinfectants of medical instrument as well as diet instrument as well as the preparation of the anti-bacterial, deodorant finishing agent of fabric.
3. It can also be applied to biochemical studies. It is a kind of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents which inhibit the type II fatty acid synthase (FAS-II) of bacteria and parasites, and also inhibits the mammalian fatty acid synthase (FASN), and may also have anticancer activity
1. Take 2, 4-dichloro-phenol as the raw material; use 2,4-dichloro-phenol to react with potassium hydroxide to generate dichlorophenol potassium which further reacts with 2,5-dichloro-nitrobenzene in the catalysis of copper for generation of 2,4,4-trichloro-2'-nitro diphenyl ether. It is further reduced by iron powder to generate 2, 4, 4-trichloro-2'-amino diphenyl ether, and then further went through diazotization hydrolysis to obtain the product.
2. Take o-methoxyphenol as the raw material: have potassium hydroxide powder reacted with guaiacol to generate guaiacol potassium. Apply reaction between bromobenzene and methoxy ether, together with chlorine for chlorination to obtain 2, 4, 4’-trichloro-2'-methoxydiphenyl ether. Take AICI3 as hydrolysis catalyst to generate 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether.
Used as bacteriostat and preservative for cosmetic and detergent compositions. Antiseptic, disinfectant.
Bacteriostat and preservative for cosmetic and detergent preparations.
triclosan is a preservative considered to have a low sensitizing potential in leave-on preparations.
ChEBI: An aromatic ether that is phenol which is substituted at C-5 by a chloro group and at C-2 by a 2,4-dichlorophenoxy group. It is widely used as a preservative and antimicrobial agent in personal care products such as soaps, skin creams, toothpaste and deodo
ants as well as in household items such as plastic chopping boards, sports equipment and shoes.
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound.
It was originally used in soaps, antiperspirants, and cosmetic
toiletries as a germicide. Today, triclosan is incorporated
into toothpaste because of its wide spectrum of
antimicrobial activities and low toxicity.
Stri-Dex Cleansing Bar (Sterling Health U.S.A.); Stri-Dex Face Wash (Sterling Health U.S.A.).
Mechanism of action
Triclosan is active against a broad range of oral grampositive
and gram-negative bacteria.The primary target
of its antibacterial activity is the bacterial cell membrane.
High concentrations cause membrane leakage
and ultimately lysis of the bacterial cell. Effects at lower concentration are more subtle. Triclosan has been
shown to bind to cell membrane targets and inhibit enzymes
associated with the phosphotransferase and proton
motive force systems.
Triclosan is retained in dental plaque for at least 8
hours, which in addition to its broad antibacterial property
could make it suitable for use as an antiplaque
agent in oral care preparations. However, the compound
is rapidly released from oral tissues, resulting in
relatively poor antiplaque properties as assessed in clinical
studies of plaque formation.This observation is further
corroborated by a poor correlation between minimal
inhibitory concentration values generated in vitro
and clinical plaque inhibitory properties of triclosan.
Improvement of substantivity was accomplished by incorporation
of triclosan in a polyvinyl methyl ether
maleic acid copolymer (PVM/MA, Gantrez). With the
combination of PVM/MA copolymer and triclosan, the
substantivity of the triclosan was increased to 12 hours
in the oral cavity.
Triclosan plus copolymer is available in toothpaste.
Commercially available dentifrice concentrations contain
0.3% triclosan and 2.0% PVM/MA copolymer.
Triclosan is a preservative used in health care and consumer products, including soaps, deodorants, mouthwashes, toothpastes, cosmetics, and topical medicaments. Ozkaya et al. described a case of suspected immune mediated Cou to triclosan. A 44-year-old female reported experiencing an immediate localized urticarial response after contact with numerous topical products. The use of a toothpaste had also resulted in swelling of her lips, tongue, and breathing difficulties. She also experienced lip swelling after kissing her husband who had used the same product and wheals involving her face after kissing friends on the cheek who had used certain topical products on their faces. The suspected products all contained triclosan 0.2%–0.5%. A severe localized urticarial reaction occurred with open testing to 2% triclosan within 15 minutes. No tests were performed to confirm an immunological mechanism; however, the authors suspected this to be the case because of a positive urticarial response to triclosan within 15 minutes, a history of angioedema to the triclosan-containing toothpaste, and because no immediate reactions were seen in five control subjects who were open tested to 2% triclosan.
Veterinary Drugs and Treatments
Found in several products, often with other active ingredients, triclosan’s antibacterial effects may be useful in treating superficial
Triclosan is a bis-phenol disinfectant/antiseptic. It has a activity against a wide range of organisms, including both gram-positive and
gram-negative bacteria and acts via inhibiting bacterial fatty acid synthesis leading to disruption of cell membrane integrity. Triclosan
reportedly is not effective against Pseudomonas spp. and may be less effective against staphylococci than either chlorhexidine or ethyl
Triclosan Preparation Products And Raw materials